Manual Turbulence

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This article was most recently revised and updated by Robert Curley , Senior Editor.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Turbulent flow , type of fluid gas or liquid flow in which the fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations, or mixing, in contrast to laminar flow, in which the fluid moves in smooth paths or layers.

In turbulent flow the speed of the fluid at a point is continuously undergoing changes in both…. Fluid mechanics , science concerned with the response of fluids to forces exerted upon them. It is a branch of classical physics with applications of great importance in hydraulic and aeronautical engineering, chemical engineering, meteorology, and zoology.

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The most familiar fluid is of course water, and an encyclopaedia of the 19th century…. Fuji, only to be overwhelmed by extremely violent air currents possibly exacerbated by the mountain that took off the tail fin of the Boeing and caused it to fall to the ground.

Crew members, because of the nature of their responsibilities, are far more likely to be hurt during turbulence than actual passengers. You should resign yourself to experiencing some turbulence on just about any flight.

Turbulence: Everything You Need to Know

Fuji crash. But rest assured that, in the cockpit, the crew is doing everything they can do to avoid or minimize it. Modern technology is a wonder, with airline meteorologists providing up-to-the-minute weather models to steer planes away from the worst areas. When turbulence is unavoidable, pilots may also slow down their craft to keep the shake to a minimum. The single best thing you can do when turbulence hits is to get into your seat and buckle up. Disclaimer: The responses below are not provided or commissioned by the bank advertiser.

What Is Turbulence—and How Can Understanding It Help Anxious Flyers?

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What Exactly is Turbulence?

Skip to content. Search Search Cards, Rewards, Deals…. Significant mechanical turbulence will often result from the passage of strong winds over irregular terrain or obstacles. Less severe low level turbulence can also be the result of convection occasioned by surface heating. Turbulence may also arise from air movements associated with convective activity, especially in or near a thunderstorm or due to the presence of strong temperature gradients near to a Jet Stream. Very localised, but sometimes severe, Wake Vortex Turbulence may be encountered when following or crossing behind another aircraft. This turbulence is due to wing tip trailing vortices generated by the preceding aircraft; however, this phenomena is distinctively transient.

Air moving over or around high ground may create turbulence in the lee of the terrain feature.