A central purpose was to reorganize and redispose the VNAF and streamline the chain of command, in order to improve responsiveness, coordination, and general effectiveness of the military effort against the VC. Over and above organizational considerations, the NCP provided for systematic intensification of aggressive operations in all CTZs to keep the VC off balance, while simultaneously conducting clear and hold operations in support of the expanding Strategic Hamlet Program.
Priority of military tasks was first to concentrate on areas north of Saigon, then gradually shift toward the south to Saigon and the Delta. On 26 November, President Diem promulgated the necessary implementing decrees and directives to effect the reorganization of the SVN armed forces and realign the chain of command. The following January the draft of a detailed implementing plan for the NCP itself was completed and subsequently approved. Force levels laid out in the CPSVN provided for total personnel increases reaching a peak of , regular and para-military in FY 64, with RVNAF manning strength raised from , to a peak of , in the same FY period and remaining on that plateau thereafter.
When CINCPAC forwarded the plan, therefore, he went to considerable lengths to explain the discrepancies and to support and justify the higher costs. The rationale offered was that, in order to prosecute the counter-insurgency to a successful conclusion, while at the same time building up GVN capability to allow early withdrawal of U.
But clearly most of the greater cost throughout the period reflected PCHT. It also provided U. Headquarters and other U.
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Draft responses to the JCS were prepared and then withdrawn. Secretary McNamara was not satisfied with either the high funding levels or the adequacy of the plan regarding exactly how the RVN forces were to take over from the U. In mid-April he decided to withhold action pending full review of the CPSVN at another Honolulu conference which he expressly scheduled for that purpose for 6 May. Meantime, the various OSD agencies concerned were instructed to prepare detailed analyses and background studies for him.
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However, the beginnings of a counter-current were already evident. New demands for increases all around were to overwhelm the phasing out objective. Ad hoc requirements for more U. This current, counter-current dynamic can be illustrated well by Mr. McNamara's decisions of late March.
As part of the Secretary's policy of demanding strict accounting and tight control on authorized U. He was reassured by the Chairman, JCS, that the estimated peak would not exceed 15, personnel. Yet, on this very same day, the Secretary approved a substantial force augmentation, requested earlier, for FARMGATE and airlift support, involving additional aircraft and a total of approximately additional personnel.
Other similar special requirements and ad hoc approvals soon were to follow. Assessments of continuing favorable developments in the improving Vietnam situation in the spring of seemed to warrant more than ever going ahead with the planned phase out.
Evaluations expressed in the "Summary of Highlights" covering the first year of MACV's existence cited in detail the record of the increasing scale, frequency, and effectiveness of RVNAF operations, while those of the VC were declining. Cited as perhaps the most significant progress was the Strategic Hamlet Program. The future looked even brighter, e.
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Other evaluations, though more conservative, still tended to corroborate this optimism. NIE , issued 17 April , found no particular deterioration or serious problems in the military situation in South Vietnam; on the contrary, it saw some noticeable improvements and general progress over the past year. The worst that it could say was that the situation "remains fragile. At the 6 May Honolulu Conference, briefing reports again confirmed gratifying progress in the military situation.
McNamara questioned the need for more Vietnamese forces in FY 68 His reasoning was that a poor nation of 12 million like Vietnam could not support that many men under arms. Qualitatively, furthermore, the planned evolution of VNAF seemed over-ambitious in terms of sophisticated weaponry such as fighter aircraft. In sum, the Secretary felt the CPSVN assumed an unrealistically high force level for the SVN military establishment and assigned it equipment that was both unduly complicated to operate and expensive to procure and maintain.
Based on these considerations, the Secretary of Defense concluded that, if the insurgency came under control in FY 65 as anticipated, the U. With regard to phasing out U. He wanted it revised to accomplish a more rapid withdrawal by accelerating training programs in order to speed up replacement of U.
While recognizing that the build-up of RVNAF was inherently a slow process, he stressed that in the instance of some U. Specifically toward this end, he decided that 1, U. Guidance and terms of reference were provided reflecting the Secretary of Defense reactions and specifying the decisions reached.
Singled out especially was the requirement for U. The JCS directive read:. As a matter or urgency a plan for the withdrawal of about 1, U. Plans should be based upon withdrawal of US units as opposed to individuals by replacing them with selected and specially trained RVNAF units. The proposed plan for withdrawal of the first increment of U. All Services were represented. The criteria employed, also based on earlier guidance, were to select most of the personnel from service support and ogistics skills most easily spared and whose release would have least effect on perations.
The total came to 1, U. The first cut, based on the Secretary of Defense's own suggested total for the FY period, was rejected by the Secretary of Defense as too high and returned, with various desired reductions entered by the Secretary of Defense. For instance, the contemplated phase-out of U. Nonetheless, there were still further refinements made.
This final product represented a radical reduction in both force levels and financial investment after FY 66, consistent with the Administration's original policy goal of ending the war and the U. They recommended approval at this time for planning purposes only; final decision was to depend upon circumstances as they developed. The reasons given were that this would be more practical and efficient for the U. ISA pointed out to the Secretary of Defense that the plan as it stood would not draw all of the troops from U.
Many of the so-called "units" designated therein actually were not bona fide existing units but were specially formed "service support units" made up of random individuals most easily spared throughout USMACV. ISA cautioned that the arbitrary creation of such ad hoc "units" solely for the purpose of the withdrawal might backfire in press reaction. ISA also recommended, in order to show credibly that the final year-end U. A few days later the Secretary of Defense approved the man withdrawal plan forwarded in JCSM as recommended. He agreed, however.
He also requested that he be provided with a projection of U.
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The following week the Chairman, JCS, responded to the Secretary of Defense's request and furnished the following projection of end-of-month U. August: 16, September: 16, October: 16, November: 16, December: 15, It was noted that the planned man withdrawal would represent a reduction based on the October peak strength. The first increment of personnel would be withdrawn during November and the remaining increments in December.
This, as it turned out, was destined to be changed somewhat before the withdrawal was executed. While the CPSVN-MAP and withdrawal planning were going on, significant developments altering the character of the entire situation to which the plan-fling effort was addressed--in fact threatening to invalidate the very premises from which the planning sprung--were occurring within South Vietnam. The Buddhist crisis was rocking the foundations of what precarious political stability the Diem government enjoyed and there was growing concern about its effect on the prosecution of the war against the VC and on improvements of RVNAF.
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A series of incidents beginning early in May revealed the deep divisions between militant Buddhist factions, who purported to speak for the bulk of the South Vietnamese population, and the Government. Lack of popular support for the Diem regime had now turned to open opposition. As passions flared and Buddhist activism was met with increasingly severe countermeasures, violence spread and grew more serious. A tenuous truce was reached briefly between Buddhist leaders and the GVN on 10 June formally signed on 16 June in a mutual effort to reduce tensions-but proved short-lived.
Almost immediately the actions of both sides repudiated the agreements. By early July, the crisis was recognized as serious at the highest levels of the U. Through mid-July assessments remained reasonably reassuring. There was little evidence of impact on the military sector. In fact, indications pointed to the military situation continuing to improve.
DIA reported on 17 July that the general level of VC-initiated actions during the first six months of was considerably lower than for the same period the year before. Battalion and company-size attacks were at about half the level. It was noted, however, that despite reduced activity, VC capability remained essentially unimpaired.
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Regarding the progress of South Vietnamese counterinsurgency efforts, the DIA evaluation was cautiously optimistic: though there was still a long way to go, GVN prospects "are certainly better than they were one year ago. Quite abruptly, a disturbing element began to emerge. Moreover, the rate was high for the third week in a row since mid-July.
The clear implication was that the VC at last were taking advantage of the opportunity presented by the Buddhist crisis. It had been expected--and feared--that they would seek to hasten political collapse and exploit whatever military vulnerabilities there were. Within ten days of this DIA report, however, a reevaluation of the significance to be attached to the increased rate of enemy actions allayed fears somewhat.
Its magnitude, comparatively, was below the average of the preceding year and fell far short of the previous high. In this perspective, SACSA saw no cause to read undue implications into developments that were as yet neither particularly salient nor of long duration. The political crisis meanwhile took a turn for the worse.
https://osabcaher.gq President Diem, in an attempt to regain control, declared martial law on 20 August. The decree was accompanied by forcible entry into pagodas and mass arrests of Buddhist leaders and laity, and was immediately followed by a series of preemptory repressive measures. Any hope of reconciliation was now shattered, and the Diem government was irrevocably isolated.
The Director, DIA, in a special report to the Secretary of Defense, expressed concern that the declaration of martial law "will have serious repercussions throughout the country. So far, he saw little military effect on the war effort; relatively few troops had been withdrawn from normal missions. For the next month, as the precarious political situation balanced on the brink of imminent disaster, U. The Administration was confronted by a dilemma.